The fantasies concocted around cancer, and around tuberculosis in earlier times, undergo close examination in Susan Son- tag's brilliant new book, Illness as. File:Susan Sontag Illness As Metaphor pdf Susan_Sontag_Illness_As_Metaphor_pdf (file size: MB, MIME type. My point is that illness is not a metaphor, and that the most truthful way of regarding illness—and the health- iest way of being ill—is one most purified of, most.
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𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Sep 8, , James Curran and others published Illness as Metaphor; AIDS and its Metaphors. Illness as Metaphor is a work of critical theory by Susan Sontag, in which she challenges . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Illness as More Than Metaphor. By DAVID RIEFF. My mother, Susan Sontag, lived almost her entire 71 years believing that she was a person.
In De principis in- structione c. Cambrensis, however, saw the analogy in terms of duty, arguing that the prince should be prudent in punishing his subjects: Cited in: Anthony Milton, Catholic and Reformed: William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Kenneth Muir ed.
Until the late seventeenth century, the kings of England performed healing ceremonies that drew huge audiences, suggesting that many believed in the literal healing powers of royalty.
This belief in the efficacy of the royal touch also applied to the royal blood, which was often believed to be therapeutic as well. Obviously, this belief in the thauma- turgic powers of royalty rooting in their divine status was weak, implicit or simply absent in many texts that invoked the image of the physician-king. For many political thinkers, foremost Machiavelli, the analogy between prince and doctor functioned mainly as a heuristic and didactic instrument.
Yet the belief did much to energize rhetoric and logic of the diseased body politic, and few explicitly rejected it. The idea of the prince as healer of the body politic was especially urgent in times of civil unrest, when the head could impose order on the rest of the body. During the English civil wars various pamphlets appeared that reported the healing miracles performed by Charles I,39 implying that he was wholesome to the body politic as well.
When the king had been executed, the state, too, was decapitated and could be healed only by restoring the House of Stuart to the throne. Helmers, The Royalist Republic. A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology. With a new preface by William Chester Jordan, Princeton During the First Anglo-Dutch War, for example, when panic reigned the streets after the disastrous battle of Portland, The Discovery of the Dutch Cancer, With which the entire body of our state is grievously infected Ontdeckinghe van den Nederlandtschen cancker.
The Prince of Orange, as the protector of the reformed religion, is presented as the medicine who will restore the country to its former pious and therefore prosperous condition. The traditional personification of Dutch political bodies, the allegorical virgin, provided a suitable image for Orangist pamphleteers. The terrible mutilations that the De Witt bodies suffered fig.
Thus, one pamphleteer sug- 41 Ontdeckinghe van den Nederlandtschen cancker. Popular Print and Politics in the Netherlands, —, Leiden , pp. Vertoonende de quade regeringe der Loevesteinse factie, Antwerpen false imprint , , Kn. It is striking that in contrast to their colleagues in neighbouring kingdoms, Dutch 45 Reinders, Printed Pandemonium see n.
In all the instances of the trope of the healing ruler I found, as in the examples above, they present him as a cure. That the Prince was, by implication, a passive object administered by a third-party doctor rather than the doctor himself is sig- nificant, and peculiar to the nature of Dutch Orangism, which predominantly saw the prince not as the absolute power, but as the servant of the state.
This points to a final, to my knowledge unrecognized corrollary of the political discourse of disease and infection of the body politic: Instead, it is usually meant only to convey the speedy, multidirec- tional, and non-hierarchical replication of information. Rather than sickening, tweeting and engaging in other forms of public communication are, in the West at least, predominantly seen as wholesome activities, a connotation that stands in sharp contrast with the biological vehicle that is employed to describe them.
In early modern Europe, the virus — discovered first by Dmitri Ivanovsky in — was not yet known, but language of sickness was as eagerly applied to the media as it is today.
Media, as we shall see, were alternately condemned as infectious diseases or praised as effective medicines. The insight was soon integrated into traditional representations of the body politic. Anglo-Dutch Repu- blican Exchanges, c. Mahlberg and D.
Wiemann eds. This evidently changed the way in which the play on the revolt in microcosm was read. It is no coincidence that rumours were circulating in the s that Oliver Cromwell, the great Parliamentary leader, had been inspired to revolt against his king when he played a role in a school per- formance of Lingua at the tender age of four.
These rumours, which were brought into circulation by the printer Simon Miller, are probably false. It was made, moreover, in circles very close to Van den Bosch: Simon Miller was the printer of his own English work.
This was highly appropriate and in itself hardly original. The English civil wars had seen the collapse of royal censorship, which had unleashed an unprecedented outburst of political debate: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography [www. Lambert van den Bosch, Florus Anglicus: The rumour was picked up in the Dutch pamphlet Kn.
Helmers, The Royalist Republic see n. More frequently, and arguably more aptly, print was targeted in Dutch pam- phlets as an infectant. As ever so often, the prescription was simple: The religious dispute between Remonstrants and Contraremonstrants of — was such a conflict. Numerous pamphlets in favour of both reli- gious groups appeared during this years, contributing to the violent mood that took over the Dutch Republic.
At the height of this conflict, a pamphlet appeared with the curious title, Reuck-appel af-ghevende den lieffelijcken geur vande daden des […] vorsts, den prince van Orangien Pomander, spreading the lovely scent of the deeds of the Prince of Orange. Ethan H. Shagan, The Rule of Mode- ration. The anti-absolutist Huguenot Francois Hotman also considered his own history Francogallia to be a remedy to the bodily discord troubling France during the wars of religion.
It is probably no coincidence that the asso- ciation between Maurice and a pomander echoes a familiar monarchist trope. Rulers such as Elizabeth I were often depicted with pomander, which was not just a precious jewel signifying their wealth, but also a metonymical reminder of their own healing qualities. The conflict between the healing qualities of print and prince runs through a subgenre of the pamphlet literature, the so-called alarum pamphlets.
Whereas the monarch was supposed to heal the body politic by tempering the passions political print aroused, alarum pamphlets claimed to heal it exactly by arousing the passions.
Retrieved Lochlann How Cancer Becomes Us. The University of California Press. The New York Times.
The risk taker". The Guardian. Retrieved February 26, See Susan Sontag Documentary". The New York Observer. June 1, Vamps and Tramps: New Essays. Penguin Books, , p. Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Pages to import images to Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. She wasn't saying that cancer and AIDS need more attractive metaphors, she was saying that they shouldn't have any, and I can't accept that.
Again, maybe this was my misreading, but I felt like Sontag was pathologizing use of metaphor, which isn't in itself a symptom of illness, and in fact is, as far as I'm concerned, necessary to human life or at least this human's.
I haven't personally experienced TB, cancer, or AIDS myself, but I have been diseased, and in my personal opinion a spoon full of metaphor helps the medicine go down, or at least has helped me to conceptualize and make meaning out of what otherwise just sucks and is basically senseless. Metaphor is the framework that makes all the chaos superficially intelligible. I know many metaphors are dreadful and ugly, but to me that still might be better than the void.
Maybe the choice doesn't have to be so stark, and maybe we can replace the sicker metaphors with healthy ones, but even if I could think of a terminal illness as "just" a disease, I don't think I'd want to. Again, maybe I'm missing the point.
That happens sometimes! Okay, a lot. I also got a little concerned at some points that Sontag might overlook relatively concrete, scientific facts in service of her argument For instance, smoking can cause lung cancer, that's not just something they say to make cancer patients feel bad.
And while obviously mind-body theories are extremely dangerous for the reasons she describes, I also don't think that acknowledging possible relationships between mental and physical health is inevitably false or stigmatizing, and I felt like she needed to deny that possibility at all costs. Sometimes when she said she just wanted to get at just the science, I wasn't sure I could trust her.