8 जनवरी Hindi Sahitya ka Itihas PDF (हिंदी साहित्य का इतिहास) के बारे में आप सभी प्रतियोगी Students जानते ही होगे, हिंदी. Evolution of Hindi literature; a historical survey. Hindi Sahitya Aur Samvedana Ka Vikas. By Ram Swaroop Chaturvedi. Hindi Sahitya Ka Adikal - Hazari Prasad Dwivedi - Free download as PDF File . pdf) or read online for free. हिंदी Hindi Sahitya Ka Sankshipta Sugam Itihas.
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Hindi Sahitya Aur Samvedana Ka Vikas. byRaam Swaroop LanguageHindi. Book Source: Digital calivekospa.tkpe: application/pdf. Hindi Literature app is for Competitive Exam and School Leval Students.. Categories: 1 छंद 2 अलंकार 3 काव्य रस 4 काव्य रीति 5 काव्य गुण. Cashback (2): Get 10% cashback using RuPay cards. Max Cashback - INR if you are using RuPay card for first time on site. INR 25 if you have used.
The earliest form of Hindi can also be seen in some of Vidyapati 's Maithili works. Bhakti kaal c. Sadhukaddi was also a language commonly used, especially by Kabir in his poetry and dohas.
This was also the age when Poetry was characterised under the various Rasas. Bhakti poetry had two schools — the Nirguna school the believers of a formless God or an abstract name and the Saguna school the believers of a God with attributes and worshippers of Vishnu's incarnations.
Kabir and Guru Nanak belong to the Nirguna school, and their philosophy was greatly influenced by the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Adi Sankaracharya.
The Saguna school was represented by mainly Vaishnava poets like Surdas , Tulsidas and others and was a logical extension of the Dvaita and Vishishta Advaita Philosophy propounded by the likes of Madhavacharya etc. This school was chiefly Vaishnava in orientation as in seen in the main compositions like Ramacharitamanas , Sur Saravali , Sur Sagar extoling Rama and Krishna. This was also the age of tremendous integration between the Hindu and the Islamic elements in the Arts with the advent of many Muslim Bhakti poets like Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana who was a court poet to Mughal emperor Akbar and was a great devotee of Krishna.
The Nirgun School of Bhakti Poetry was also tremendously secular in nature and its propounders like Kabir and Guru Nanak had a large number of followers irrespective of caste or religion. Riti-kavya kal c. This era is called Riti meaning 'procedure' because it was the age when poetic figures and theory were developed to the fullest.
But this emphasis on poetry theory greatly reduced the emotional aspects of poetry—the main characteristic of the Bhakti movement—and the actual content of the poetry became less important. Although most Reeti works were outwordly related to Krishna Bhakti , their emphasis had changed from total devotion to the supreme being to the Shringar or erotic aspects of Krishna's life—his Leela, his pranks with the Gopis in Braj , and the description of the physical beauty of Krishna and Radha , Krishna's Consort.
The poetry of Bihari , and Ghananand Das fit this bill. The most well known book from this age is the Bihari Satsai of Bihari , a collection of Dohas couplets , dealing with Bhakti devotion , Neeti Moral policies and Shringar love.
Both books came out in Chandrakanta , written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in , is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. Adhunik kal c. The College president J. Gilchrist hired professors to write books in Hindustani. A depiction of Surya in an book, Indrajalakala The Art of Magic ; Jwala Prakash Press, Meerut The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand , who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement.
Before Premchand, the Hindi literature revolved around fairy or magical tales, entertaining stories and religious themes.
Premchand's novels have been translated into many other languages. Gocharya ji authored Krishna Cahrit Manas in the poetic form describing about the full life of Lord Krishna from birth to Nirvana.
It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi , who played a major role in establishing the modern Hindi language in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of the Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love. He encouraged poetry in Hindi dedicated to nationalism and social reform. One of the most prominent poems of the period was Maithili Sharan Gupt 's Bharat-bharati, which evokes the past glory of India. Shridhar Prathak 's Bharatgit is another renowned poem of the period.
According to Lucy Rosenstein: "It is verse of public statement; its language is functional but aesthetically unappealing.
Earnestly concerned with social issues and moral values, it is puritanical poetry in which aesthetic considerations are secondary. Imagination, originality, poetic sensibility and expression are wanting, the metre is restrictive, the idiom clumsy.
However, she also adds that the inelegance is a typical feature of a "young" poetry, as she considers Modern Hindi. The subjects of the poems tended to be communal rather than personal. Characters were often presented not as individuals but as social types. This is known as Chhayavaad shadowism and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chhayavaadi.
Poet Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' was another great poet with some Chayavaadi element in his poetry although he wrote in other genres as well. Out of countries in whole world, there are only 4 countries including India with over million population. These is one of the best books for Bank Exams. Hari Not a Topix user yet?
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