PDF | Software testing is the process of analyzing software to find the difference between required and existing condition. Software testing is performed. PDF | There are several methods for automatic test case generation has been proposed in the past. But most of these techniques are structural. Free tutorial about What is Black Box Testing, Advantages, Disadvantages, Strategies and Techniques, and levels of black-box method.
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Two basic approaches to software testing are black box testing and white box testing. .. calivekospa.tk . What is Black Box testing? • Testing without having an insight into the details of underlying code input. Unit output. • Testing based on specification. What is. Black-box vs. White-box Testing: Choosing the Right Approach to Deliver Quality Applications. Overview. Within the automated testing world there are two.
During black-box or white-box analysis it is harder to identify problems, related to end- to-end data flow. Context-specific problems, associated with web site testing are usually found during gray-box verifying.
Black Box Testing Black box testing is a software testing techni hniques in which functionality of the software under der test SUT is tested without looking at the internal code structure, imp mplementation details and knowledge of internal paths ths of the software.
This type of testing is based entirely on the software require uirements and specifications. Black box testing is best suited for rapid test st scenario s testing and quick Web Service prototyping.
This testing technique for Web Services provides quick feedback on the functnctional readiness of operations through quick spot check ecking.
Black Box testing is also better suited for operations that have enumer erated inputs or tightly defined ranges or facets so that th broad input coverage is not necessary.
It is used for finding the following errors: 1. Incorrect or missing functions 2. Interface errors 3. Errors in data structures or External database access 4.
Performance errors 5. Initialization and termination errors Example A tester, without knowledge of the internal al sstructures of a website, tests the web pages by usin sing a browser; providing inputs clicks, keystrokes and verifying the outputs ts against a the expected outcome. The higherr the t level, and hence the bigger and more complex thee bbox, the more black box testing method comes into use.
Black Box Testing Techniques Following are some techniques that can be use sed for designing black box tests. Equivalence partitioning Equivalence Partitioning is a software test desi esign technique that involves dividing input values into to valid and invalid partitions and selecting representative values from each parti rtition as test data.
Cause Effect Graphing Cause Effect Graphing is a software test desig sign technique that involves identifying the cases input ut conditions and effects output conditions , producing a Cause-Effect Graph, h, and a generating test cases accordingly. Fuzzing is also used to test for security problems in software.
In this method, test cases are derived in whole or in part from a model that describes some aspects of the system under test. These test cases are known as the abstract test suite, and for their selection different techniques have been used. Non intrusive: code access not required. Easy to execute: Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete. It can be scaled to large number of moderately skilled testers with no knowledge of implementation, programming language, operating systems or networks.
No Coding Skill Required: Tester need not know programming languages or how the software has been implemented. Black Box Testing Disadvantages Localized Testing: Limited code path coverage since only a limited number of test inputs are actually tested.
Inefficient Test Authoring: without implementation information, exhaustive input coverage has unknown additional benefits to the actual code paths exercised and can require tremendous resources. White Box Testing White box testing is testing beyond the user interface and into the nitty-gritty of a system.
Example A tester, usually a developer as well, studies the implementation code of a certain field on a webpage, determines all legal valid and invalid and illegal inputs and verifies the outputs against the expected outcomes, which is also determined by studying the implementation code.
Levels Applicable To It is applicable to the all levels of software testing: 1 Unit Testing: For testing paths within a unit. However, it is mainly applied to Unit Testing. White Box Testing Techniques Basis Path Testing Basis path is a white box testing techniques which is first proposed by Tom McCabe and it allows the test case designer to produce a logical complexity measure of procedural design and use this measure as an approach for outlining a basic set of execution path basic set is the set of all the execution of a procedure.
These are test cases that exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once.
Basic path testing makes sure that each independent path through the code is taken in a predetermined order. Loop Testing Loop testing is another type of white box testing which exclusively focuses on the validity of loop construct. Loops are simple to test unless dependencies exist between the Loops or among the loop and the code it contain. Branch testing however, has the objective to test every option either er true or false on every control statement which also als includes compound decision when the second decision depends upon thee pprevious decision.
In branch testing, test cases are designed de to exercise control flow branches or decision points in a unit.
All branc nches within the branch are tested at least once. White Box Testing Advantages Increased Effectiveness: Crosschec ecking design decisions and assumptions against sour ource code may outline a robust design, but the implementation mayy not n align with the design intent.
Early Defect Identification: Analyzlyzing source code and developing tests based on thee iimplementation details enables testers to find programming errors quickly.
No Waiting: Testing can be commen enced at an earlier stage. White Box Testing Disadvantages Difficult to Scale: requires intimate te knowledge of target system, testing tools and codin ing languages, and modeling.
It suffers for scalability of skilled and expert ex testers. Once the source code is understood then the source code can be analyzed for test cases to be created. The following are the three basic steps that white-box testing takes in order to create test cases: Input involves different types of requirements, functional specifications, detailed designing of documents, proper source code and security specifications.
Processing involves performing risk analysis to guide whole testing process, proper test plan, execute test cases and communicate results. Output involves preparing final report that encompasses all of the above preparations and results. It has several major advantages: Side effects of having the knowledge of the source code is beneficial to thorough testing. White-box testing requires a programmer with a high level of knowledge due to the complexity of the level of testing that needs to be done.
The resulting test can be fragile because they are tightly coupled to the specific implementation of the thing being tested.
Also, some invalid inputs negative test scenario are chosen to verify that the SUT is able to detect them.
Tester determines expected outputs for all those inputs. Software tester constructs test cases with the selected inputs. The test cases are executed. Software tester compares the actual outputs with the expected outputs. Defects if any are fixed and re-tested. Types of Black Box Testing There are many types of Black Box Testing but the following are the prominent ones - Functional testing - This black box testing type is related to the functional requirements of a system; it is done by software testers.
Non-functional testing - This type of black box testing is not related to testing of specific functionality, but non-functional requirements such as performance, scalability, usability.
Regression testing - Regression Testing is done after code fixes, upgrades or any other system maintenance to check the new code has not affected the existing code.
Tools used for Black Box Testing: Tools used for Black box testing largely depends on the type of black box testing you are doing.